Why don't female action stars look as strong as male ones?
Body Image, Comics, Fashion, Pop Culture, Superheroes

Why Have Female Action Stars Lost Their Muscles?

First published on Fanny Pack on 6th December 2016


I have nothing against Gal Gadot. Really, I don’t. She’s a beautiful woman, a fine actress, and I had the biggest grin on my face watching her knock ten shades of shit into Doomsday in the otherwise gloomy mess that was Batman V. Superman: Dawn of Justice.

She’s got the lasso, she’s got the armour, she’s got the red, white and blue, and she’s even got that hard-to-place exotic accent that a Themysicaran warrior woman really would have, IRL. Her hair is flowing and dark and her gaze is steely. She mostly looks perfect in the role. Mostly. It’s just that… there’s something that’s been bothering me ever since the first photos of her on set came out. The muscles, or I should say, lack thereof. I mean, I know Wonder Woman is super strong. But looking at Gadot – I just don’t believe it.

Wonder Woman: Film vs Comic

As soon as you put Gal Gadot’s slim arms up against the source material’s bulging drawn ones, the muscular difference is clear straight away. Source: Warner Bros/DC Comics.

This is in no way meant as a body-shaming thing. I mean can you even body-shame a 5’10” model? Yeah, that’s right – you’ve probably seen in her that dumb TV commercial for Gucci Bamboo where she, amongst other things, plays a piano naked. (A scene that sticks in my mind because it always makes my mum crack up laughing whenever she sees it, and now me every time I see it too from the memory of her cracking up. Mum’s are the best.)

In addition to modelling, Gadot has High School basketball, two major pageant titles, and two years of military service in the Israel Defenses Force on her CV. Clearly, this ridiculously well-balanced mix of brawn and beauty is what helped her land her first most notable acting credit in the Fast and Furious series. Since being cast as DC comics’ strongest superherione, she’s now a firmly established a modern female action star in the mold of Angelina Jolie, Zoe Saldana, Mila Jokovich and Scarlett Johansson. Read: beautiful but deadly. These women are all fit, toned, flat-stomached and ready to fucking kill you as soon as kiss you, and I love each and every one of them for that. But there’s also a part of me that feels continually dissatisfied with the slighter frames these actresses sport compared to their male counterparts. It’s the part of me that sorely misses watching Linda Hamilton’s sweaty biceps bulging from the strain of doing pull-ups in Terminator 2 for the first time.

Twenty-something years later, Chris Evans performed this tangible feat of Herculean strength in Captain America: Civil War, sending a million Tumblr users into a sexually GIF-ed out frenzy.

Captain American helicopter pull

Nothing artificial in those arms. Just 100% BEEF. Source: Tumblr.

But we’ve never gotten anything remotely similar from his female co-star, Scarlett Johansson. Sure, as Black Widow she does great stunt work and she can sashay away after dropping a dude like nobodies’ business, but do you believe she’s as strong as all that clever wirework is tricking you into thinking she is? No, of course not. And yes, this is probably an unfair comparison considering the differences in fighting style and skillset between these two characters. But, if we’ve ended up with such a lithe and slinky Wonder Woman – a woman who can go toe-to-toe with Superman – how likely do you think it is that we’ll get the beefed-up version of the alien-strengthened Captain Marvel from Brie Larson we deserve in 2019? How long will it be until we get another Sarah Connor?

Scarlet Johansson as Black Widow in Iron Man 2

This is still the best scene from Iron Man 2, though. Source: cinesnark.

You could chalk it up to the biological fact that women aren’t as strong as men – 52% as strong in the upper body and 62% in the lower body, to be exact. But just because women can never look equally muscly as men, doesn’t mean they can’t get pretty damn close. You only have to turn your TV on during Olympics season to get a eyeful of lady abs, or switch over to Wimbledon in the summer to marvel at Serena Williams’ glorious man-crushing thighs. Or, just buy yourself a copy of 1996 TV action movie, Raven Hawk, to see body-building star Rachel McLish – the “female Schwarzenegger” – putting her real oiled-up muscles to real good use.

Rachel McLish in Raven Hawk

Don’t mess. Source: Amazon.

I don’t for one second believe that it’s any of the actresses’ faults either. The Ripleys, Sarah Connors and Raven Hawks of the machismo-charged late 80s and early 90s have sadly died out along with tube socks and hair blow-dried to Heaven. You only have to read a handful of interview extracts with the female action stars of today to realise that the majority of their training goes towards squeezing into some kind of catsuit rather than looking like they can comfortably take down half a dozen S.H.E.I.L.D agents in an elevator.

Mother Russia from Kick-Ass 2

What’s this?! The rare-spotted muscular female action star in 2013’s Kick-Ass 2? Unfortunately, though ‘Mother Russia’ was a breath of muscular fresh air, her appearance was played off as a source of comedy rather than strength, exemplifying how “ludicrous” we’re supposed to find it that women who look like this exist. Source: ComicVine.

Suitably, this trend may have started in the movies with Catwoman – one of the very first female characters in superhero comics. “We’d go in my trailer, powder me down, put on the suit – and then they’d put this silicone goop all over me,” Michelle Pfeiffer reminisced on Inside the Actor’s Studio about playing the cat burglar in Tim Burton’s Batman Returns in 1992. “You get vacuum packed, but it sort of starts to squeeze you.” She also said that kickboxing lessons helped, but in reference to fitting into the suit, not for looking like she could kick any Bat-butt. Similarly, when Halle Berry played the character in the ill-conceived, Razzie-showered Catwoman in 2005, Berry resorted to the infamous ‘5 Factor Fitness’ plan formulated specifically for her to look her best (Read: skinniest) in the bra and belt combo she had to wear. Fast-forward to Christopher Nolan’s applauded redemption of the character in 2012’s The Dark Knight Rises, and Anne Hathaway says on Regis and Kelly that Nolan’s comparatively modest version of the iconic suit was, “unforgiving… It had to be a lifestyle change to get into that suit.” Compare these accounts then to Chris Hemsworth’s preparation for playing Marvel’s resident magical hammer-wielder, who bulked up so much he couldn’t fit into his Thor costume. I don’t think Halle Berry would have been let off the hook for that.

Halle Berry as Catwoman

Lest we forget. Source: Pinterest.

Once again, we could dismiss this as a circumstantial to different characters. As a cat-inspired thief, Selina Kyle needs a slim rather than bulky frame; as a femme fatale she needs to be sultry rather than butch, and that catsuit is far too iconic to ditch completely. Thor, on the other hand, needs to look every inch the Godly pillar of strength we know from myth and pop culture. And yet, even Paul Rudd packed on muscle to play the normally trim and averagely proportioned Scott Lang in Marvel’s Ant-Man in 2015.

Paul Rudd as Ant-Man.

I mean, I won’t complain THAT hard about it. Source: Marvel.

It seems you really can’t get away with playing any male character in an action movie without bulking up, but when it comes to female characters, Hollywood seems to have taken far too many queues from the Catwoman School of Heroine Design and deviated very little. You can see it echoed everywhere from Angelina Jolie as Lara Croft, to Kate Beckinsale as Seline in the Underworld series, to Carrie Ann Moss as Trinity in The Matrix Trilogy. Unlike her male counterpart whose sexiness is a by-product of his muscular appearance, a modern female action star’s muscular appearance is restricted by an expectation of sexiness. In fact, you could argue that because the films they star in are mainly marketed towards men, the actresses’ believability as sex symbols has to supersede their believability as strong women, or producers worry there might not be enough ‘eye candy’ to sell tickets. I mean, are we really supposed to buy that Zoe Saldana’s tiny arms can possibly lift a 7lb military rifle?

Columbiana

Source: YouTube.

Even the tagline for 2011’s forgettable Colombiana can’t help emphasising Saldana’s attractiveness over her strength for fear of fragile male egos feeling threatened.

Black Widow and Catwoman are supposed to be slinky catsuited heroines. I get that. But Wonder Woman and Captain Marvel are heavy-hitters. There’s no excuse for not making them look as nails as Superman and Captain America.

Unlike her male counterpart whose sexiness is a by-product of his muscular appearance, a modern female action star’s muscular appearance is restricted by an expectation of sexiness.

But there’s something else outside of Hollywood’s control that might be a deciding factor here, too. A huge amount of these actresses also cash cheques from modelling on the side. Charlize Theron may shave her head for Mad Max: Fury Road, but next month she’s got to paint herself gold for a Dior ad. Scarlett Johansson can cause psychic chaos in Lucy, naked-dive off buildings in Ghost in the Shell and roundhouse-kick super villains in The Avengers films, but after shooting wraps up she has to go Marilyn Monroe-it-up for Dolce & Gabbanna or lay still like a lifeless sex doll next to some Louis Vuitton handbags.

Scarlet Johansson for Louis Vuitton Fall 2007

Pretty dead. Source: Fashion Gone Rogue.

Is Chris Evans also the face of Gucci Guilty? Sure. Does Gerard Butler growl his way through commercials for Hugo Boss’ Boss Bottled? Yep. And Ryan Reynolds? You betcha. But they don’t have to worry about sporting the same bulky physique they did for Captain America, or Deadpool, or 300 because there’s only really one way a man at peak physical fitness should look: muscular. Doesn’t matter whether he’s punching Nazis in the face or staring wistfully into a sunset to sell you eau de parfum.

Angel Dust in Deadpool

2016’s Deadpool gleefully tore up the superhero movie rulebook, including the slim female action star trend by casting muscular, MMA fighter Gina Carano as villainess ‘Angel Dust’ to take on X-Men heavy-hitter, Colossus. Source: 20th Century Fox.

This brings us full-circle back to the lovely Gal Gadot, who – if you remember – was, and still is, a model as well as action star. Do you really think that if she chewed her way through a gallon of protein pills and weight-lifted truck tires for 6 months for BvS:DoJ like Batfleck, Gucci would have still let her film that dumb naked piano scene that my mum finds so hilarious? Of course not. Because most of us don’t consider muscly women to be conventionally beautiful. Sorry – most men don’t consider muscly women to be conventionally beautiful, not outside of the funny pages, anyway.

Emily Blunt in Edge of Tomorrow

Emily Blunt’s push-up in 2014’s Edge of Tomorrow invokes the spirit of Linda Hamilton… But only in spirit. Source: Tumblr.

But you know what? Wonder Woman wasn’t created as a champion for men. She was created for us – for women. She’s our champion. Not just in fiction, but in real life now too. This year, the UN (controversially) named her as ‘Honorary Ambassador for the Empowerment of Women and Girls’, and whether you agree with that choice or not, no-one can deny that Wonder Woman has been a purpose-built feminist icon for the past 75 years. The very least Hollywood and the beauty industry can do to honour her and her history is to let us have a version of her that looks like she really can kick the teeth out of our oppressors. We know she’s strong on the inside. It’d just be nice to see it on the outside too.


For more on fictional heroines and their body shapes, check out ‘A Female Character’s Waistline Should Be As Realistic As Her Job Description.’


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Comics, Feminist/Gender Theory, Pop Culture, Superheroes

The Lois Lane ‘Batman V Superman’ Doesn’t Think You Can Handle

[WARNING: MILD SPOILERS FOR BATMAN V SUPERMAN: DAWN OF JUSTICE]

First published on the Fanny Pack blog, April 6th 2016.


Batman V Superman: Dawn of Justice may have been a disappointment to many, but I think most comic book fans – and feminists – can agree that Gal Gadot’s strong performance as Wonder Woman was a much-needed bright spot. It’s a shame, then, that the film’s other significant female character – intrepid reporter Lois Lane (Amy Adams) – doesn’t get the same treatment. Though she plays a fairly significant part in advancing the story, and enjoys some (weird) bath-time fun with Clark Kent (Henry Cavill), that’s pretty much all she’s there for – little more than a plot device, a shoulder to cry on, and even worse, a constant distraction to Earth’s greatest hero.

This may seem like a trivial complaint but as someone who fell in love with comic books before feminism, Lois Lane – along with Wonder Woman, Catwoman and Storm – was instrumental in shaping my understanding of what it meant to be a woman in a man’s world. And in a world filled with Gods, magic, time-travel and President Luthor, you’ve got to be one heck of a dame.

Here’s why The Daily Planet’s ace reporter is far more than just Superman’s victimised girlfriend.

A DAMSEL (NOT) IN DISTRESS

Disney's Hercules, Meg:

 The ‘woman in peril’ theme is one that has unfortunately persisted throughout literature and pop culture, from ancient Greek maidens like Andromeda and her hero Perseus, right the way through to Princess Zelda and her hero Link in Nintendo’s Legend of Zelda. It’s no surprise then that the Superhero genre – the modern-day equivalent to Perseus – has also been oversaturated by the damsel/hero dynamic.

Superman is the world’s first Superhero and Lois Lane his eternal damsel in distress. No matter how many Pulitzers she wins or oranges she juices at her Daily Planet desk in her personal war on cigarettes, that core underpinning will never change. But throughout her 75-year history, her determination to fight this definition has never waned.

'Superman's Girlfriend, Lois Lane' #85

‘Superman’s Girl Friend, Lois Lane’ #85

From her solo comic title, ‘Superman’s Girl Friend, Lois Lane’ (1954-1974) to her top billing in TV’s ‘Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman’ (1993-97), and recent YA novel series ‘Fallout‘ by Gwenda Bond, Lois has proven that she is not only a superior journalist to Clark Kent and Superman’s equal partner, but can carry a story on her own. More often than not, when Lois finds herself in need of rescue from the Big Man in Blue, it’s from a sticky situation of her own making. Rather than wait around to be scooped up by a dragon like a hapless medieval maiden, Lois seeks out trouble in the name of journalism.

Lois Lane, Girl Reporter Newspaper Strip

Lois also starred in her own newspaper strip, ‘Lois Lane, Girl Reporter’, 1943-44.

Even better is when – thanks to a mix of her “military brat” upbringing and some Kryptonian martial arts – sometimes she gets to even save herself.

‘COS FEMALES ARE STRONG AS HELL

30 Rock. Jack to Liz:

Ever since William Moulton Marston blessed us our first feminist superwoman, Wonder Woman, the Superhero genre has been filled with gutsy, gladiatorial women. But whilst these goddesses represent a masculinised ideal of brute force, Lois Lane represents a more achievable kind of strength for us mere mortals. Tenacity, self-reliance, and quick wits – these are the weapons of choice for the archetypal career woman bent on “having it all”.

Teri Hatcher as Lois Lane in 'Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman.'

Teri Hatcher as Lois Lane in ‘Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman.’

But Lois Lane’s fierceness didn’t just grow from the necessity to reflect the changing role of women in society; Shuster and Siegel embedded it within her character from the very start. Her personality was borrowed from fast-talking fictional reporter (and owner of The Most 1930s Name Ever) ‘Torchy Blane’ who starred in a series of Warner Bros. films in the 1930s. Her tagline was ‘The Lady Bloodhound with a Nose For News!’ and she was one of the few positive examples of career-driven women on American cinema screens at the time that rivalled – or bested – her male equivalents.

Glenda Farrell as ‘Torchy Blane.’

Also woven into Lois’ DNA was real-life pioneering journalist and inventor Nellie Bly. Not only did Bly famously travel the world in a record-breaking 72 days, but also she feigned insanity in order to write an exposé on life inside a mental institution – redefining investigative journalism and making the rest of us feel desperately lazy.

From Meg in Disney’s Hercules to Spider-Man’s Mary-Jane Watson, every “feisty” damsel worth her salt owes a debt of gratitude to Lois.

LOIS ISN’T HOLDING OUT FOR A HERO

Lois Lane breaks up with Superman

‘Superman’s Girl Friend, Lois Lane’ #121

Saying that Lois and Clark are one of your favourite couples in fiction is kind tantamount to saying the same about Romeo and Juliet. In other words, woefully mainstream. But as much as I really do believe they deserve a place amongst literature’s greatest love stories, Lois has proven many times that she can function perfectly well without her fated other half, as the panel above illustrates.

This was exemplified on-screen recently in the much-maligned Superman Returns (2006). Picking up after Superman II (1980), the film starts with Superman (Brandon Routh) returning to Earth after a 5-year absence to find that Lois (Kate Bosworth) has not only moved on to someone else, but also raised a son with him.

Kate Bosworth as Lois Lane in 'Superman Returns'.

Kate Bosworth as Lois Lane in ‘Superman Returns’.

Inevitably as the story progresses, Lois finds that her feelings for the Man of Steel are not as buried as she’d thought, and I’m sure the abandoned sequel planned for 2009 would have seen my favourite reporting duo back together. Nonetheless, I was still impressed that rather than pull a ‘Bella Swan’ and throw herself off of a cliff in a fit of angsty despair, Lois Lane wipes away her tears, wins her damn Pulitzer, finds another great guy, raises a child, and foils Lex Luthor’s dastardly plans.

Because not even Earth’s strongest hero can break her that easily.

 

KEEP LOIS OUT OF THE REFRIGERATOR

Lois Lane's death in Superman Annual #2

‘Superman Annual’ #2

Despite her development over the years into a competent and important player in the DC Universe’s canon of heroines, too many landmark stand-alone stories in Superman’s history hinge not on the strength of Lois Lane, but on her death. Kingdom Come, Superman: Kal, Flashpoint, and Injustice: Gods Among Us all sacrifice Lois (in some pretty fucked up ways) simply to motivate Superman to lose his shit. And judging from the teasers nestled in Dawn of Justice, we may be in danger of seeing one of these stories on screen soon.

This is a variant of the ‘Damsel in Distress’ trope known as ‘Women In Refrigerators’, coined by comics writer Gail Simone to “describe the trend of female comic book characters who are routinely brutalised or killed-off as a plot device designed to move the male character’s story arc forward.” (The term originates from Green Lantern #54, in which Green Lantern discovers his murdered girlfriend’s body in his fridge.)

Green Lantern discovers his girlfriend's murdered body in his fridge

‘Green Lantern’ #54

Look, I get it. Superman only has two weaknesses: Kryptonite and Lois Lane. (Well, three weaknesses if you include his susceptibility to magic.) Same goes for practically every other superhero trying to balance saving the planet with getting laid. It’s a character-building shortcut that’s become inherent to the genre. But the problem with this is that while the male character (and they are nearly always male by default) benefits from this dynamic by having his big, brooding ego balanced with a touch of human emotion, the female character gains nothing other than baring the weight of the inevitable choice he will have to make between her life and the lives of others. What does it tell you about the value of a female character if she adds more to the narrative in death than in life? Plus, this constant stream of stories that use violence against women as a plot device harmfully perpetuates the real-world stereotype of women as helpless victims and men as their patriarchal saviours.

Any writer that reduces Lois Lane down to little more than human Kryptonite thoroughly misrepresents her rich 75-year history as an important pop cultural icon to women. I can only wait and hope that Snyder’s future Justice League movies treat her a little better than just a sacrificial lamb with a reporter’s badge. In the immortal words of Kate Beaton (of ‘Hark, a Vagrant‘ fame): “If Lois isn’t super rad all the time, then I don’t even want to hear about it.”

'Lois Lane, Reporter' by Kate Beaton, 'Hark, a Vagrant'.

‘Lois Lane, Reporter’ by Kate Beaton, ‘Hark, a Vagrant’.


IMAGE CREDITS:

Featured Image: Screenshot from ‘Batman Vs. Superman: Dawn of Justice‘, Geek 101 Podcast.

  1. Screenshot of Megara from Disney’s Hercules, Trembling Trimble.
  2. Cover of ‘Superman’s Girl Friend, Lois Lane‘ #85, Superman Wiki.
  3. Newspaper strip, ‘Lois Lane, Girl Reporter‘, Strippers Guide.
  4. Clip of Lois Lane fighting from Smallville, season 6, episode 17 ‘Combat’, You Tube.
  5. Screenshots of Jack Donaghy and Liz Lemon from 30 Rock, Entertainment Weekly.
  6. Trailer screenshot of Glenda Farrell as Torchy Blane in ‘Smart Blonde‘, Wikipedia.
  7. Panel from ‘Superman’s Girl Friend, Lois Lane‘ #121, Women Write About Comics.
  8. Screenshot of Lois Lane and Clark Kent from ‘Superman Returns‘, The Skinny Stiletto.
  9. Panel from ‘Superman Annual’ #2, Comic Vine.
  10. Panel from ‘Green Lantern’ #54, The Artifice.
  11. ‘Lois Lane, Reporter’ comic strips by Kate Beaton, Hark, a Vagrant.
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Wonder Woman
Comics, Feminist/Gender Theory, Pop Culture, Superheroes, Visual Cultural Theory

A Female Character’s Waistline Should be as Realistic as Her Job Description

Originally published on the Fanny Pack Blog.


There’s no denying that body image is a prickly issue within Feminism and our cultural landscape in general. As women, we live in a confusing world in which certain cosmetic companies *cough Dove cough* tell us to love our imperfections whilst simultaneously selling us products to fix imperfections we never realised we had (dry underarms, anybody?); in which we are apparently dicing with death when we order diet pills from the Internet; and in which our most shamed body parts one month could become our most fantasised about the next, depending on which female celebrity ranks highest on Google.

Dove Advert

Dove ‘Beautiful Underarms’ Campaign

It is no surprise then that our precious imaginary worlds, both on page and on screen also suffer from the same real-world problems. A recent trend happening online that has caught my attention has been identifying and even ‘fixing’ the unrealistic proportions of our favourite super heroines and Disney princesses. From hair, to historical accuracy, to waistlines – if there’s something to be changed, there’s someone with a Photoshop brush poised to change it.

Disney princesses with realistic waistlines

Disney Princesses with ‘Realistic’ Waistlines

The reason is certainly well-intentioned. These fictional characters – however much we kid ourselves – are intended for the consumption of younger audiences, and as such, impractical standards of beauty can have a negative impact on their perception of it and their sensitive self-confidence. But, does that mean that every ridiculously proportioned female character rendered in ink or animation is a problem waiting to be fixed? I would argue no, or at least, not in certain circumstances.

This thought struck me after I came across this particular image of Wonder Woman from Bulimia.com, whose creative team came up with the idea of giving superheroes ‘realistic waistlines’ after seeing people do the same for Disney princesses.

Wonder Woman Parody Bulimia

Wonder Woman Parody from Bulimia.com

The incentive was completely worthy: highlighting to young people that these fictional characters sport similarly fictional body shapes. Whilst it’s pleasing to see that adding a few extra pounds has certainly not lessened these super heroines’ appeal in the slightest, I did take issue with this treatment being performed on Wonder Woman specifically, and let me explain why.

I grew up in the late 90s/early 00s glued to the exploits of small-screen action heroines like Buffy and Xena as they high-kicked and shrieked their way through their improbable lives. They may have worn short skirts and metallic bras, but they were, and still are, hugely empowering to me, and their athletic physiques were a big part of that.

Xena Warrior Princess

“‘Sup, Bro?”

As the grand matriarch of all our pop cultural warrior women like Buffy and Xena, Wonder Woman still looms large today as the physical embodiment of female strength; the kind of strength that enables her to go toe-to-toe fearlessly with her muscular male equivalents. She is a warrior, a Goddess, and a champion of women’s rights. She’s the comic book answer to Rosie the Riveter.

The crux of what I’m saying is thisA female character’s waistline has to be as realistic as her job description.

If she was raised on an all-female island of warrior women, then she should have a warrior’s body. However, if she was raised in a fairy tale castle where her only physical activity was to sweep the floor and cook dinner for an ungrateful and demanding surrogate family then there is no logical necessity for her to sport a 24” waist and tiny slipper-sized feet. The same goes for nearly every princess in the Disney school of character design, in which being impossibly slim is as requisite as singing to birds and having at least one dead parent.

Not only can excessively small waistlines be a problem, but excessively sexualised ones too. And whilst exaggerated idealisation can be acceptable for certain characters as I’ve discussed, exaggerated sexualisation is often totally unnecessary and voyeuristic. This usually comes through not in the way that certain female characters are built, but how they are clothed and posed, and one that has attracted a lot of scrutiny recently is Starfire from DC’s Teen Titans.

Starfire Bikini

Starfire, from Red Hood and the Outlaws #1, 2011

Like Wonder Woman, Starfire is a warrior princess from a faraway fantastical place and as such she is pretty darn ripped. Her idealised toned body poses no problem to me, and her hyper-positive personality makes Starfire one of my favourite members of the Titans. However, her wrestling-inspired barely-there costume and the leering angles artists often choose to draw her at distract from her ungendered qualities as a powerful crime-fighter to make you constantly aware that she is a woman with very womanly parts.

There is of course nothing wrong with female characters utilising their feminine wiles. Poison Ivy and Catwoman, for example, use the femme fatale shtick as part of their villainous arsenal, and Starfire is in fact a very playful and flirtatious character – she even worked as a model at one point in the 80s. But I refuse to believe that even such a body-confident beauty like Starfire would decide that an outfit that risked her boobs popping out every time she threw a punch.

The Bulimia.com parody artwork was of course not intended to criticise comic book art as a whole, but it did unintentionally hit upon the solution to the problem of unrealistic proportions in fictional characters: Diversity. As I said earlier, if we want our heroines to look more positively ‘realistic’ then the parameters of their realism need to be defined by their individual lifestyles just as we real women are defined by ours. If a female character is a brawler that spends every night kickboxing street thugs, give her a six-pack and killer thighs. But if she’s just rocked up as a new student at the Xavier institute with the power of telekinesis then she could be either over, under, or of an average body weight and it wouldn’t make any difference to her abilities or our ability to connect with her as a character.

Thankfully this positive change towards body diversity is already alive and well in pop culture as exemplified by excellent comics such as Rat Queens and excellent cartoons such as Steven Universe, which both feature refreshingly female-orientated super-powered teams of diversely powered and sized heroines to love and relate to.

Rat Queen

Rat Queens

Steven Universe

Steven Universe

In terms of costume, it’s also pleasing to see the small but significant changes made to powerhouse heroines recently like Wonder Woman, Ms. Marvel, and (yay!) Starfire, whose idealised but practical bodies are finally matched by practical clothing.

Wonder Woman, Starfire, and Ms Marvel Costume Re Design

(From left to right, clockwise) Wonder Woman (2015), Starfire (2015), and Kamala Khan, aka the new Ms. Marvel (2014)

We still need our Goddesses, warriors, and sirens, but there’s more than enough room for our chunky, scrawny, or just plain averagely shaped heroines to inspire us as well.

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